ACRA Deterioration

The initiation and propagation of corrosion in concrete structures can be influenced by both internal and external factors. These sources of deterioration depend on concrete properties and exposure conditions and, to a large extent, govern structural performance and remediation practices.

Compilation of sources and causes of deterioration

Source Potential causes of deterioration
Constituent materials Cement quality, water and aggregate, mechanical strength of aggregate, aggregate reactivity
Concrete properties WC, strength, permeability, thermal properties
Construction defects Inadequate curing, bleeding and segregation, honeycombing, poor construction joints, concrete cover to steel reinforcement
Natural & artificial agents Environmental effects, weathering, bacterial growth, acid attack, freeze-thaw action, de-icing salts, underground water, acid attack, fire damage, etc.
Loading Wind, seismic, fatigue, vibration, abrasion, erosion, poor design

Refer to Chapter 2 of the Guide to Concrete Repair and Protection, whose content comprises:

  1. Internal factor
    – Alkali-silica (alkali-aggregate) reaction
    – Other reactions
  2. External factors
  3. Steel reinforcement corrosion
  4. Summary
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. Further reading
    – Standards

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